AB TQM Prject - [PDF Document] (2024)

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    A Six Sigma project Report


    College of Management & Administrative Sciences,GOVERNMENTCOLLEGE UNIVERSITY FAISALABAD

    June, 2012

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    A Six Sigma project Report

    Under the guidance of

    Mr. Masood Nawaz Kalyar

    Submitted by

    Muhammad Abdullah 203Yahya Amin 205

    Mah Gull 223

    BBA(Hons) 2009-2013

    in partial fulfilment of the subject

    Total Quality Management

    College of Management & Administrative Sciences,

    Government College University Faisalabad

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    A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t :

    We wish to acknowledge our regards and indebtedness to our guideand benevolent Sir. Masood

    Kalyar teaching Total Quality Management in G.C. UniversityFaisalabad. Whose kind and

    precious suggestions enriched our thoughts and helped us toaccomplish this Business plan. We

    also want to thank our families who supported us. Thanks toAlmighty ALLAH for giving us

    such will and power to complete this business plan on time

    A deep sense of appreciation is owed to Mr. Ikram ilahi for hiskind attitude and keen interest

    during my internship.

    Last but not least we offer our humble heart felt gratitude anddeepest affections to my great

    mother and respected father for being inspired for higher idealsof life, supported morally and

    financially throughout my studies, and always prayed forglorious success about my pursuits

    throughout all of my life.

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    P r e f a c e :

    We have chosen this Textile Mill to make our project on it. Wehad a good time while doing the

    survey about our problem and gathering the information aboutsolving our problem to increase

    employee efficiency through different ways into a project.

    The project is basically about the Increasing employeeefficiency, skills, knowledge. We also

    used the source of internet for gathering information. We thinkthat we have done our job in

    solving the problem we hope that

    We have given all the complete information required by ourteacher, and hope that our hard work

    pays off.

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    Executive Summary:

    YAT is the organization that deals in the manufacturing of Lawnand Cotton suits. This

    organization is innovatory product in the Pakistani market. Theorganization name is Yasir Afzal

    Textile Pvt. Ltd.

    In the first phase, we had conducted the Organization survey andwe found the main problem in

    organization . The survey was very successful in which weobserved all the procedure of

    manufacturing clothe and different type of machines which helpedto produce clothe and then we

    get sample knowledge about employees their efficiencies, skillsand knowledge about their work.

    In the whole survey the main problem that we found is that thereis no sufficient output as there

    should be. Then with our survey report and knowledge we foundthe cause of this problem. The

    cause is that employees are not satisfied from their job. Inwhich we found that there is

    insufficient salary, lack of commitment, no incentives andworking environment which

    discomforts the employees. Therefore, we decided to solve thisproblem and increase the

    efficiency of employees.

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    Serial No. Topic Pg #02 Dedication 04

    03 Acknowledgement 05

    04 Preface 06

    05 Executive Summary 6

    Ch. # 1 Company Introduction 08

    o Company Name 08o Slogan & Logo 08o History of organization09o Vision & 11o Mission Statement 12o Objectives 13o BriefHistory of organization

    Ch. # 2 Six Sigma Process 15

    o DMAIC Process 17Ch. # 3 Define 19

    Ch # 4 Measure 20

    o Cost per meter 25o Six sigma Calculation 26o Process Flow 28oPrato Diagram 29o Time Series 30

    Ch # 6 Analysis 31

    Ch #7 Improvement 32

    Six Sigma Calculation After improvement 33

    o Prato Diagram and Time Series 34Ch # 8 Control 35

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    Ch # 1: Introduction

    Company Name:

    Yasir Afzal Textile Pvt Ltd.

    Our Slogan:

    Be Different

    Our Logo:

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    History of Organization:

    Yasir Afzal Textile Industries Pvt. Limited Faisalabad is thegrooming industry in Faisalabad in

    textile. Founded in 1991 by the most famous person, HajiMuhammad Afzal and Haji

    Muhammad Islam, is now led by the young Mr. Umer Afzal and Mr.Amir Afzal , a dynamic

    second generation leader of Faisalabad textile industry.

    Yasir Afzal Textile is one of the largest manufacturer oftextile goods in Pakistan. It is

    manufacturing high quality products. Its product brand name isAshi and Rabi are amongst

    leader in the market. Yasir Afzal Textile has designing, andprinting departments. The bedding

    and fabric collection of Yasir Afzal Textile are sent to thedifferent parts of the country such as

    Lahore Karachi Islamabad and Peshawar.

    Yasir Afzal Industry by now is in textile cloth finishing andprocessing, textile product packing.

    Haji Muhammad Afzal the present Chairman of the Industry, thecreative and courageous man,

    latter joined by second generation, making a blend of experienceand modern business

    knowledge, managed the business growth and development withassistance of highly qualified

    team of professionals. Faith in Almighty Allah and in their ownabilities & commitment to the

    cause, untiring efforts and leadership qualities of the family,established the industry, which now

    stands amongst Leading Industrial Industry of the Country, underthe Chairmanship of Haji

    Muhammad Afzal.

    The daily production round about 1 lac meter and the parties ofYAT are in Lahore, Karachi,

    Faisalabad, and Multan through the different parties they exportcloth in different Asian

    countries like Seri Lanka, India, Malaysia and Thailand. ViaKarachi they send cloth to Dubai.

    For many years YAT working with Maria B Designer. Theymanufacture Maria B Lawn on

    order which have many outlets inside the country Karachi,Lahore, Faisalabad etc and outside the

    country like Dubai.

    They start with one rotary Machine and then expand the businesswith the passage of time and

    now working with 3 rotary machines. Start business with personalmanufacture and sold their

    cloth through outlet in market and later on manufacture cloth onorder .Now many domestic

    trader prepare their cloth from YAT on order.

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    To become one of the Best brands in the country

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    Satisfying ourcustomers by providing them best qualitative stuffand Unique designs keeping

    in view their comforts and excellence

    Excellence in quality and improved efficiency at lower operatingcost by Utilizing blend of state

    of art technologies.

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    Our Objectives:

    There are two types of objectives

    1-Non-Financial Objectives:

    To be among the top ten favorite brands. Yasir Afzal Textile isthe growing Organization in the Textile Sector ISO certifiedCompany Having a Qualified and Experienced Staff Proper Utilizationof Human Resources Having a latest Machinery to Compete GloballyFriendly Environment

    2-Financial Objectives:

    To maintain an inflation growth in earning per year at a rate of12%. To obtain a return on equity of at least 30%. Providingstitching facilities to other boutiques in 2010 which are Lackingthis facility.

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    Yasir Afzal Textile Industries Pvt. Limited Faisalabad is thegrooming industry in Faisalabad in

    textile. Founded in 2005 by the most famous person, HajiMuhammad Afzal and Haji

    Muhammad Islam, is now led by the young Muhammad Umer andMuhammad Amir , a

    dynamic second generation leader of Faisalabad textileindustry.

    Yasir Afzal Textile is one of the largest manufacturers oftextile goods in Pakistan. It is

    manufacturing high quality products. Its product brand name isAshi and Rabi are amongst

    leader in the market. Yasir Afzal Textile has designing,stitching, and printing departments. The

    bedding and fabric collection of Yasir Afzal Textile are sent tothe different parts of the country

    such as Lahore Karachi Islamabad and Peshawar.

    Yasir Afzal textile is one of the largest manufacturers oftextile in Pakistan. Specializing in home

    textiles, printed, dyed, bleached fabrics, an apparel andfashion garment, Yasir afzal is delivering

    quality to virtually all parts of the country. With latestState-of-the-art machinery and

    equipment, it is a complete printing, dyeing, finishing andstitching plant. Three huge spinning

    mills, a high caliber weaving unit and a made-up / garment unitis working under one roof. The

    unit is capable of producing high quality with a capacity of75000 meters of finished cloth every


    Yasir Afzal textiles industries private limited has proudlymaintaining its leadership in 100

    percent pure cotton products along with the man made fiber. Theproduct range in pure cotton is

    available as sateen both in mono cotton and poly cotton, bedsheets, pillow, quilt covers, aprons,

    boxer shorts, and ready made garments are available in mostexotic and fascinating designs.

    A sizeable percentage of Yasir Afzal textiles, daily textileproduction by the meter are converted

    in-house into a ready, saleable retail product. There Cut &Sew division enjoys the cuttingedge in assembling and sewing of bedsheets and sets, quilt covers, curtains, table linen, bed

    spreads, comforter covers, pillow cases, kitchen linen and readymade garments as per the specs

    defined by the customers.

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    From a fiber to a finished product, nothing gets spared from ourultra-sensitive, extra vigilant

    laboratory. Equipped with the most modern and precisionequipment, products are frequently

    subjected to tests against most relevant international standardsat every stage of manufacture.

    Tests are conducted to control shrinkage (dimensional change),pilling resistance, and abrasion,

    color fastness and washing fastness etc.

    Much of their wide success and popularity is attributed to theretechnically being ahead in there

    printing. There printing staff and design teams combine years ofpractical experience in printing

    with top-of-the-range Austrian J. Zimmer rotary printingmachines producing 280 cm finished

    width up to 12 colors per design and maximum repeat of 91 cm.Flat bed printing facility

    comprised Reggiane machine with 320 cm working width and 320 cmrepeat.

    Thanks to their modern and sophisticated facility, processing tofinishes like chintz, silicon,

    scotchgard, fire retardant down proof and raisin etc, isinvariably a pleasure. With YASIR

    AFZAL, their clients gets quick quality sampling on Austrian J.Zimmers latest rotary strike off

    machine facilitating production of strike offs up to 15 meterlength

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    What is six sigma?

    Six sigma is a customer based approach realizing that defectsare expensive. Fewer defects mean

    lower costs and improved customer loyalty. The lowest cost, highvalue producer is the mostcompetitive provider of goods andservices. Six sigma is a way to achieve strategic business


    Six Sigma is a business management strategy, originallydeveloped by Motorola, USA in

    1986. Six Sigma became well known after Jack Welch made it acentral focus of his businessstrategy at General Electric in 1995,and today it is widely used in many sectors of industry.

    Six Sigma seeks to improve the quality of process outputs byidentifying and removing thecauses of defects (errors) andminimizing variability in manufacturing and business processes.It

    uses a set of quality management methods, including statisticalmethods, and creates a special

    infrastructure of people within the organization ("Black Belts","Green Belts", etc.) who are

    experts in these methods. Each Six Sigma project carried outwithin an organization follows adefined sequence of steps and hasquantified financial targets (cost reduction and/or profit


    The term Six Sigma originated from terminology associated withmanufacturing, specificallyterms associated with statisticalmodeling of manufacturing processes. The maturity of a

    manufacturing process can be described by a sigma ratingindicating its yield, or the percentage

    of defect-free products it creates. A six sigma process is onein which 99.99966% of the products

    manufactured are statistically expected to be free of defects(3.4 defects per million). Motorolaset a goal of "six sigma" forall of its manufacturing operations, and this goal became abyword

    for the management and engineering practices used to achieveit.

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    Ch #3: DMAIC Process

    1-D= DEFINE: Define the problem, the voice of the customer, andthe project goals,specifically. The objective of this phase is todefine opportunities for improvement. Defining theproblem answersthe questions such as "what are the problems?"

    Define is the first step in our six sigma approach of DMAIC.DMAIC first asks leaders to defineour core process. It is importantto define the selected project scope, expectations, resourcesand

    timelines . The definition step in the six sigma approachidentifies specially what is part of the

    project and what is not, and explains the scope of the project.

    2-M=MEASURE: Measure key aspects of the current process andcollect relevant data.Many think when they start a journey the mostimportant thing to know is where they are going.while we agreeknowing where you want to go is very important, we believe some ofthe first

    information you need before starting any journey is your currentlocation. The six sigma

    approach asks the black belt project manager to quantify andbenchmark the process using actualdata. At a minimum consider themean or average performance and some estimate of the

    dispersion or variation.

    3-=ANALYSIShave been considered. Seek out root cause of thedefect under investigation.Analyze the data to investigate andverify cause-and-effect relationships. Determine whattherelationships are, and attempt to ensure that all factors

    Once the project is understood and the baseline performancedocumented and verified that there

    is real opportunity, it is time with the six sigma approach todo an analysis of the process . in

    this step , the six sigma approach applies statistical tools tovalidate root causes of problems. Anynumber of tools and tested canbe used .The objective is to understand the process at a level

    sufficient to be able to formulate options for improvement. Weshould be able to compare the

    various options with each other to determine the most promisingalternatives.

    4-I=IMPROVE: During the improve step of the six sigma approachideas and solutions areput to work. the six sigma black belt hasdiscovered and validated all known root causes for the

    existing opportunity. the six sigma approach requires black beltto identify solutions. few ideas

    or opportunities are so good that all are an instant success. aspart of the six sigma approach

    there must be checks to assure that the desired results arebeing achieved. some experiments and

    trails may be required in order to find the best solution. whenmaking trails and experiments it isimportant that all projectassociates understand that these are trails and really are part ofthe six

    sigma approach.

    Improve or optimize the current process based upon data analysisusing techniques such

    as design of experiments, poke yoke or mistake proofing, andstandard work to create a new,future state process. Set up pilotruns to establish process capability.

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    5-C=CONTROL: Control the future state process to ensure that anydeviations from targetare corrected before they result in defects.Implement control systems such as statistical process

    control, production boards, visual workplaces, and continuouslymonitor the process.

    Many people believe the best performance you can ever get from aprocess is at the very

    beginning. Over time there is expectancy that slowly things willget a little worse until finally it

    is time for another major effort towards improvement. Contrastedwith this is the kaizen

    approach that seeks to make everything incrementally better on acontinuous basis. The sum of

    all these incremental improvements can be quite large. As partof the six approach performance

    tracking mechanism and measurement are in place to assure, at aminimum, that the gains made

    in the project are not lost over a period f time.

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    PROJECT: Yasir Afzal Textile Pvt. Ltd.


    Leader: Abdullah Shahzad

    Black belt : Yahya Amin

    Green Belt : Mah Gull

    Project start: 28 April 2012

    Project end : 28th may 2012


    START POINT: enter the grey into factory

    END POINT: Manufacture the cloth and Dispatched


    MILESTONE: visit and identified the problem

    Data collection ANALYSIS

    DATE: 28-04-12

    30-04-12 07-05-12




    Critical to Quality:

    Cost of poor quality:10,000-20,000 Meter.


    SPONSOR: Yasir Afzal Textile (PVT LTD).

    BLACK BELT: Abdullah Shahzad, identification of

    problem is the main responsibility of Abdullah


    GREEN BELT: Yahya Amin collection , analysis of

    data and implementations are the responsibilities of

    Yahya Amin


    Problem is that no output from employees and no

    efficiency level .there are many reasons behind this

    but we took main reasons that environment is not

    suite able, 2nd employees are not satisfied, 3rd lack

    of motivation


    This project is about the increase the employees

    efficiencies and increase the output of employees &throughwhich increase the production

    Provide the cloth to customer on time and

    increase the daily production.

    10-05-12 13-05-12 25-05-12

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    Ch#4: Measure







    Entry in



    Is GreyBe good

    Refuses Order

    check Inventory

    Jigger Machine

    Standard Machine

    Rotary &


    Ager Machine


    Super Machine



    Calendar or Press








    or Dying

    1 or 2 Hours


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    For manufacturing cloth 1st of all receive grey in factory thenenter inventory of grey in recordthen check the fault about greyand if defect in grey then reject the grey but in case ofacceptation

    then send for bleaching in which three steps involve

    Bleaching:-Bleaching improves whiteness by removing naturalcoloration and remaining trace

    impurities from the cotton; the degree of bleaching necessary isdetermined by the

    required whiteness and absorbency. Cotton being a vegetablefiber will be bleached using

    an oxidizing agent, such as dilute sodium hypochlorite or dilutehydrogen peroxide. If the

    fabric is to be However, for white bed sheeting and medicalapplications, the highest

    levels of whiteness and absorbency are essential. dyed a deepshade, then lower levels of

    bleaching are acceptable.

    Desizing:-Depending on the size that has been used, the clothmay be steeped in a dilute acid and

    has been used, the cloth may be steeped in a dilute acid andthen rinsed, or enzymes may be used

    to break down the size. Then rinsed, or enzymes may be used tobreak down the size.

    Mercerize:-A further possibility is mercerizing during which thefabric is treated with caustic soda

    solution to cause swelling of the fibres. This results inimproved lustre, strength and dye

    affinity. Cotton is mercerized under tension, and all alkalimust be washed out before the

    tension is released or shrinkage will take place. Mercerizingcan take place directly on

    grey cloth, or after bleaching.

    Many other chemical treatments may be applied to cotton fabricsto produce low

    flammability, crease resist and other special effects but fourimportant non-chemicalfinishing treatments

    Care :-This step use for whiteness of cloth

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    Drying:-After the step of bleaching the grey send for drying

    Printing or Dying Printing:-

    Printing, on the other hand, is the application of color in theform of a paste or ink to the

    surface of a fabric, in a predetermined pattern. It may beconsidered as localized dyeing.

    Printing designs on to already dyed fabric is also possible.

    problem occur in our printing department due to defect inmachinery and machinery is

    stop for 1 or 2 hours and it is effect on efficiency ofemployees and production.

    20%-25% production decrease due to defect in machinery and Totaldaily production is

    1,30,000 Meter

    Dying:-Finally, cotton is an absorbent fiber which respondsreadily to coloration processes.

    Dyeing, for instance, is commonly carried out with an anionicdirect dye by completely

    immersing the fabric (or yarn) in an aqueous dye bath accordingto a prescribedprocedure. For improved fastness to washing, rubbingand light, other dyes such as vats

    and reactive are commonly used. These require more complexchemistry during

    processing and are thus more expensive to apply.

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    Ager MachineAger machine use for dry the cloth through heating.Depending on the size that

    has been used, the cloth may be steeped in a dilute acid andthen rinsed, or enzymes may be used

    to break down the size

    Super MachineIt use for washing the cloth

    Finishing department:-For finishing the cloth use standardmachine and problem can be occur in finishing

    Department and may be delay the production

    Calendaring:-Calendaring is the third important mechanicalprocess, in which the fabric is passed

    between heated rollers to generate smooth, polished or embossedeffects depending on

    roller surface properties and relative speeds.

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    Folding :-Folding machine use for rolling the cloth on role

    Checker:-After preparing the cloth then check for overview aboutdefects .

    Packing:-After the checking and clearance of clothe then we willpack the cloth.

    Dispatched:-Dispatching is the last step of the manufacturingcloth.

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    Cost per Meter

    Daily Production 130,000 Meter

    Grey per Meter Rs.63

    Grey cost Daily 63*130,000 81,90,000

    Daily Wages 1,10,000

    Electricity per Day 14000 Unit*8 1,12,000

    Sui Gas Per Day 62,500 Units*4 300,000

    Chemical Per Day 550,000

    Other Expense 40,000

    Total Expense per day 93,02,000

    Per Meter Cost = Total Expense/ Daily Production

    = 93,02,000/130,000

    = 71.55 Rs. Per Meter Cost

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    Six Sigma Calculations Before Improvement

    Daily Production = 130,000 Meter

    NO of Defects = 10,000

    Size Of the Sample = 130,000

    Defects per million = 76923

    Sigma Metric = 3.00

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    Problem is that there is no output of employee and no efficiencyof employee, and there are three main


    Defect in machinery Environment is not suite able for employeeEmployee not satisfied from job

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    Pareto Diagram

    Daily Production =130,000 Meter Problem=10,000

    Following are the problem in % of 10,000

    working environment 5000 m, Employee Dissatisfaction 3000 m,Defect in Machinery 2000 m

    Problem: Employees are not satisfied from job.

    Y-axis: Percentage of problem

    X-axis: Causes of problem











    Employee Inefficiency

    Working Environmeent

    Employee Dis Satisfaction

    Defect in Machinery

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    Time Series

    Employee Inefficiency








    Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5 Day 6 Day 7

    Working Environment

    Employee inefficiency

    Defect in machinery

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    Ch # 5 3-Analysis

    Skills Competition

    Laziness Prejudice

    Drug addiction Politics

    Top management Load shedding

    Communication Financial problem

    Human Resource

    Employees Environment

    Commitment Resources

    Employees are n

    satisfied from j

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    Ch # 6:


    we discussed many causes above that were reason of inefficiencyof employees and employees

    not showing performance so we think that delay in printingdepartment

    due to defect in printing machine so we repaired our machineryand replaced ourmachinery then problem is minimized

    for maintain and providing good environment to employees wedelivered lecture oncooperation, collaboration and mutualunderstanding and it is helpful for good

    environment. for the satisfaction of employees we giveincentives to employees and increase the

    satisfaction level

    we appreciate and motivate the employees work andperformance

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    Six Sigma Calculations After Improvement

    Daily Production = 130,000 Meter

    NO of Defects = 1550 Meter

    Size Of the Sample = 130,000

    Defects per million = 11923

    Sigma Metric = 3.8

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    After the implementation, the improvement in production anddeficiency in error.







    Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5 Day 6

    Working environment

    Employee Dis Satisfaction

    Defect in Machinery










    employees inefficiency

    working enviorenment

    emloyee dis satisfaction

    defect in machinery

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    After implementing the solution, we concluded that improvementimplementation brought

    significant benefit to YAT. That is why, we standardized thesesolutions to further avoid such


    Standardized Solution:

    Repair and replace our machinery and install some new plants andmachinery that works more


    Put emphasis on co-operation and collaboration in theorganization to make environment


    Provide incentives and allowances to satisfy employees.

    Appreciate employees to increase motivation.

AB TQM Prject - [PDF Document] (2024)


What is Total Quality Management TQM PDF? ›

Total Quality Management (TQM) is committed to a process-driven approach with continual improvement to long term success that leads to customer satisfaction while performance is the goal achievement of any organization.

How do I start a TQM project? ›

Implement A Total Quality Management System: 12 Steps
  1. Define Vision, Mission, and Values. ...
  2. Recognize Critical Success Factors (CSF) ...
  3. Introduce Measures and Metrics to Track CSF Data. ...
  4. Identify Key Customer Group. ...
  5. Request Customer Feedback. ...
  6. Build a Survey Tool. ...
  7. Survey Each Customer Group. ...
  8. Develop Improvement Plan.
Jun 11, 2021

What are the principles of TQM PDF? ›

2. TQM six basic Concepts 1. Top Management commitment to TQM principles and methods & long term Quality plans for the Organization 2. Focus on customers – internal & external 3. Effective involvement and utilization of entire work force (Employee Involvement) - Quality at all levels of the work force.- 4. Continuous ...

What are the factors of total quality management PDF? ›

Seven factors were used in the measurement, which included [i] leadership; [ii] training; [iii] organizational structure; [iv] communication; [v] incentives; [vi] measurements and evaluation; and [vii] teamwork.

How do you explain TQM? ›

Total quality management (TQM) is the continual process of detecting and reducing or eliminating errors in manufacturing. It streamlines supply chain management, improves the customer experience, and ensures that employees are up to speed with training.

What is six sigma in quality management pdf? ›

Six Sigma is a collection of process improvement tools used in a series of projects in. a systematic way to achieve high levels of stability. It is based on principles set up by. quality experts, such as Deming, Juran, Shewart and Ishakawa (Experts Archive. Questions, 2007).

What is an example of TQM? ›

Examples of TQM

Automobile manufacturer Toyota exemplifies TQM. The adoption of TQM and Kaizen at Toyota led to higher product and work quality at all levels of the organization. Toyota adopted a related practice called statistical quality control in 1949.

What are the 7 principles of quality management? ›

The seven principles of quality management are:
  • Engagement of people.
  • Customer focus.
  • Leadership.
  • Process approach.
  • Improvement.
  • Evidence-based decision making.
  • Relationship management.

What is a TQM diagram? ›

A TQM Diagram is used to create a flowchart for Total Quality Management projects. TQM diagrams are useful for drawing improvement plans and quality solutions.

What are the 7 concepts of TQM? ›

Seven basic elements capture the essence of the TQM philosophy: customer focus, continuous improvement, employee empowerment, quality tools, product design, process management, and supplier quality.

What are the four pillars of TQM? ›

The 4 pillars of TQM—customer focus, continuous improvement, employee involvement, and a process-oriented approach—lay the groundwork for fostering a customer-centric culture, driving ongoing enhancement, and empowering employees to contribute to organizational success.

What are the five pillars of total quality management pdf? ›

Product, process, organization, leadership, and commitment--those are the five pillars of TQM.

What are the 3 C's of total quality management? ›

The three Cs – culture, communication, and commitment – provide “soft outcomes” for the TQM model. Do not underestimate the importance of the three Cs! Create values and ethics to support the development of a total quality culture and ensure that creative and learning activities are developed and implemented.

What is total quality management PDF? ›

It is the application of quantitative methods and human resources to improve all the processes within an organization and exceed customer needs now and in the future. TQM integrates fundamental management techniques, existing improvement efforts, and technical tools under a disciplined approach. Page 3.

What are the 4 P's of total quality management? ›

The TQM model has four hard components – four P's – processes, people, planning and performance, which are the keys to delivering quality products and services to customers and continuously improving overall performance.

What is the meaning of Total Quality Management? ›

A core definition of total quality management (TQM) describes a management approach to long-term success through customer satisfaction. In a TQM effort, all members of an organization participate in improving processes, products, services, and the culture in which they work. Primary elements of TQM.

What is the best definition of Total Quality Management? ›

TQM in operations management is about optimizing processes for efficiency, quality, and customer satisfaction. It involves continuous improvement, employee involvement, and data-driven decision-making to deliver better products and services.

What is the basic concept of TQM? ›

TQM focuses on continual internal and process improvements over the long term, thereby enhancing the quality of produced products or services. TQM requires organizations to focus on continuous improvement, or Kaizen.

What are the objectives of TQM? ›

TQM aims to achieve excellence in all areas of an organization by systematically eliminating waste, reducing defects, and improving customer experiences and satisfaction.


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